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軽度発達障害について思うこと(4)

 さて、中学校では小学校よりもっと問題が複雑になってきます。

 定型発達の子どもたちにとっても、中学校はかなりしんどい時期です。授業のスピードが速くなることや内容が段々難しくなることもそうですが、人間関係でもいろんなことが起こります。思春期前期は特に、身体の成長と内面の成長が最もアンバランスな時期なので、そもそも「揺れやすい」特徴があります。

 そして自意識が高まる時期でもあり、他人への競争意識も出てきて自己評価が下がりやすい時でもあります。この時期に発達障害が未発見・未介入のままならば、この点で何らかの影響が出てくることは否定できません。

 しかし、目に見える問題が生じない限り、中学校で発達障害が話題になることはほとんどありません。

 中学校で発達障害の存在が発見されるのはほぼ、集団の和を乱すような問題行動や不登校など、何かきっかけになるできごとがあってのことです。

 学級担任や教科担任からの申し出で本人と面接をするのですが、その場で発達障害があるかどうかの判断はできないので、結局保護者に来ていただくように、担任を通してお願いします。

 しかし、中学校になると、保護者が連絡を受けても面接に来ないことも少なくありません。私はなるべく一回で終わらせずに、少し間を置いて何回か来ていただくように手配するのですが、発達障害の可能性がある、ということを告げた後から面接に来なくなることもあります。そういうこともあって、中学校で保護者と話をするときに、発達障害のことをあまり前面に出さないように注意しながらやっています。

 学級担任や、本人とつながりの強い教師には、私からの意見を述べ、問題が起きたときの対応について何度も説明します。幸いなことに、今の時点では先生方にはある程度の理解が得られています。そしてそれなりに対応して下さると、少しは問題行動も落ち着くのですが、本来は応急処置にすぎません。養護教諭とも、定期的に話し合い、自閉症などそれぞれの発達障害に応じた配慮について検討しています。

 ここまでもっていくのに要したエネルギーは結構なものです。そして、誤解のないように申し添えておきますが、これはあくまでも私の勤務する中学校に限った話で、中学校により、さらにそれぞれの学校の抱える状況により発達障害への対応はかなりの差があって、うまくいくことばかりではありません。非行の問題が大きいと、発達障害への対応が後回しになりますし、学校全体としては落ち着いていても、あまり興味を示さないところもあります。

 管理職や教員の興味や知識だけの問題ではありません。・・・ここでは詳しく取り上げませんが、スクールカウンセラー自身の専門性の問題も大きいです。

 いずれにしても、中学校では目立った問題がなければ発見される機会はぐんと少なくなります。そして、発達障害への対応が一番問題になるのは、不登校生徒、特に別室登校や適応指導教室などの支援を全く受けずにほとんどを自宅で過ごしている子どもたちに対して、今の教育システムではほとんど何もできることがないということです。引きこもりへの対応が少しずつ導入されてきているのですが、引きこもりの全てが発達障害というわけではなく、かりに引きこもりへの支援の途中で発達障害の存在が疑われても、そこからどうするかという答えはまだありません。

 中学生くらいになると、自分でも他の子どもたちと何か違うことに気付くことも多いです。しかし、何かのきっかけで気付いたとしても、あるいは自発的に病院にいってみようかと思えても、保護者が動かなければ何も始まらないのです。そしてこの年齢以降、保護者の発達障害の受容はさらに難しくなります。発達障害の疑いがあることを保護者に告げた後、最低でも数年は定期的に保護者と会い、少しずつ支えていける状況があればいいのですが、スクールカウンセラーは学校に週1日、年間280時間という非常に短時間の勤務で、しかも2,3年で他校に移動してしまうので、長くおつきあいをするということが大変に難しいです。しかも1日8時間をフルにつかっても足りないくらいの相談が持ち込まれ、じっくり一人の人と関わるのは不可能に近いです。

 出来るだけやろうとがんばっても、限りなく中途半端な感が否めません。それが、私が一番くやしくて、辛く思うところです。

 私としては、やはり医療機関や民間の支援機関へ何とかつなげたいと切に願っています。そうするには、保護者を動かすしかないのですが、そこでたびたび壁にぶち当たり己の無力さを痛感しています。

 中学3年になると、さらに進路の問題が出てきます。自分の興味や状態にあった学校が見つかるのが一番理想ですが、学力的に厳しいと必ずといっていいほど進路でもめます。それでも何とか納まって、中学校を無事に卒業した後、そこからどうなっていくのか…は、周囲に発達障害について知っているか否かにかかわらず、子どもたちの特性を理解し受け入れられる第三者の存在があるかないかで大きく違ってきます。発達障害の診断や支援に関しても高校生以降は子供の時とはまた違った問題が出てきます。


 続きは多分あさってに。


 

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Comments

ためになるお話、毎度ありがとうございます。新学期がやってくるとまた小学校の担任に子供の事情を説明しに行かなければならないなぁ、と気が重い感じですね。なかなかサポートしてくれる人が回りにいないので一苦労です。一応児童相談所からの紹介でデイケアで世話をしてくれる所はあるのですが、昔から週一で行っているのにもかかわらず、そこで取り上げている内容は一向に変わらず、ちょっとそれ幼稚じゃない?(つまり担当の先生達が幼稚園の先生ですからね)と思えるものがずっと繰り返されています。たぶん、施設の方も方向性を見出せないでいるのでしょうね。うちの市では所詮そのようなものです。なんとかしてほし~。

Posted by: miyashu | 2005.04.07 at 10:18 PM

miyashuさん、

 お久しぶりです。いつもありがとうございます。年度がかわるたび、担任が代わるたび、親は同じ事を何度も説明せざるを得ませんね。本当にご苦労様です。
 子供の成長は本当に早いので…援助者もそれに追いついて行かねばと思います。それぞれの自治体で予算的なものだけでなくて人的資源も差がありますから、そこそこでの課題もまた違ってくるのでしょう。何よりも子どもたちの状況にマッチした、支援が広がるようにとお祈りしています。

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