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うつ病考(3)

うつになりやすい性格があるのではないか、と以前からよく言われます。まじめ、几帳面、責任感が強い…など、本でもTVでも触れられることが多いみたいです。だけど、これらの性格の持ち主は、仕事や対人面ではきちんとやる人たちなので、他人から信頼されやすいといういい面があり、また、このような性格の人みながなりやすいという訳でもありません。

こういう性格とうつとの関係は、相関といって、うつの患者さんとそうでない人との特徴を因子分析という統計の手法で調べて割り出すもので、現実にそうかどうかというのとは多少違っています。よく言われる以外の性格でも、うつになり得ます。

原因は複雑で、本人の持つ性質以外にも環境によるものも大きく、原因を追及しようとするときりがありません。脳内のホルモンも、種類も働きも複雑でまだ未知な部分も多いです。

ただ、うつになっている状態では"3Ps"といって

 (1)苦痛がずっと(一生涯)続くように感じる(Permanency)
 (2)何でも自分のことに置き換えて考えてしまう
   (Personalization)
(3)物事のいい面に目がいかない(Pessimism)

…のような思考の特徴があるそうです。

個人的な意見ですが、うつになりやすい性格というよりも、なりにくい人の特徴はあるような気がします。

まず、こだわらないということ。これ以上がんばっても状況が変わらないと分かるとこだわりを捨てられる人はうつになりにくい気がします。いい意味でのあきらめや開き直りができるかどうかです。

もうひとつは、自分に対しても他人に対してもそこそこの評価ができること、です。
目標を持ち努力することは大切ですが、思うようにいかなかったときにあまり自己や他人について評価を厳しくしない(ここまでやれただけでもよかったじゃないかと思えること)と、落ち込まずにすみます。うつになりやすい人の中は、自分や他人に対する理想が必要以上に高いことがあります。

それから、自分の気持ちや意見を素直に出せること。日本人をはじめとするアジア系の民族はこれが苦手らしいですけど…本当はとても大切なことなんですよね。

よく「プラス思考になるとうつにならない」とも言われますが、何でもよい方に受け止めることが本当のプラス思考ではありません。失敗したり、嫌なことがあったときに、「私ってやっぱだめよねえ」と一瞬でも考えない人の方がはるかに少ないです。そう考えるときに、そうでない自分を思い出したり、「いや、そうでもないよ」と反論できればそれがプラス思考なんだと私は思います。いい面もそうでない面も、冷静に考えられること、中立点に立てることが、本当のプラス思考であり、それができる人は落ち込んでも立ち直れるのでうつにはなりにくいのでは。

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